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The scientific understanding to guide depression recognition and management in primary care has grown substantially over the past few years. The Initiative's Steering Committee has compiled a comprehensive list of publications to provide background for clinicians, administrators, and policy makers.

Clinicians may be most interested in articles in the Diagnosis and Treatment sections. We've put these first, but other sections provide important background, address cost-effectiveness, and list the recent randomized controlled trials in primary care. Also, please note that the list includes "classic" articles as well as some of the very latest. We plan to update this list twice yearly.

Allen Dietrich, MD
for the Steering Committee

Diagnostic Issues
Diagnostic Assessment and Measures
Significance of Depression
The Importance of Depression in Primary Care
Primary Care Systems for Improved Management of Depression
Cost Effectiveness of Primary Care Depression of Treatment

Coyne J, Schwenk T, Fechner-Bates S (1995). Nondetection of depression by primary care
physicians reconsidered. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 17: 3-12. Abstract

Frank E, Prien R, Jarrett R, Keller M, Kupfer D, Lavori P, Rush J, Weissman M (1991).
Conceptualization and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder. Remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:851-855. Abstract

Keller MB. (2003) Past, Present, and Future Directions for Defining Optimal Treatment
Outcome in Depression: Remission and Beyond. JAMA 289: 3152-3160. Abstract

Kessler RC, Ahao S, Blazer DG, Swartz M (1997). Prevalence, correlates, and course of minor
depression and major depression in the national comorbidity survey. J Affect Disord 45:19-30. Abstract

Pignone M, Gaynes BN, Rushton JL, Burchell CM, Orleans C, Mulrow CD, Lohr KN (2002).
Screening for depression in adults: A summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 136: 765-776 Abstract

Pincus HA, Davis WW, McQueen LE (1999). 'Subthreshold' mental disorders. A review and
synthesis of studies on minor depression and other 'brand names'. Br J Psychiatry 174: 288-96. Abstract

Sireling L, Freeling P, Paykel E, Rao B (1985). Depression in clinical practice: clinical features
and comparison with out-patients. Br J Psychiatry 147: 119-126. Abstract

Williams JW, Rost K, Dietrich, AJ, Ciotti M, Zyzanski S, Cornell J. (1999) Primary Care
Physicians Approach to Depressive Disorders: Effects of Physician Specialty and Practice Structure. Archives of Family Medicine, 8:58-67. 8:58-67 Abstract

WPA (1995). Dysthymia in clinical practice. Br J Psychiatry 166: 174-183. Abstract


Arroll B, Khin N, Kerse N. (2003) Screening for depression in primary care with two verbally
asked questions: cross sectional study. BMJ 327:1144-1146 Abstract

Hickie IB, Davenport TA, Ricci CS (2002). Screening for depression in general practice and
related medical settings. Med J Aus 177:S111-S116 Abstract

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL (2002). The PHQ-9: A new depression diagnostic and severity
measure. Psychiatr Ann. 35:509-521

Mayfield D, McLeod G, Hall P. (1974) The CAGE questionnaire: Validation of a new alcoholism
screening instrument. Am J Psychiatry. 131: 1121-1123.

Sherbourne C, Wells K (1997). Course of depression in patients with comorbid anxiety
disorders. J Affect Disord 43: 245-250. Abstract Abstract

Spitzer R, Kroenke K, Williams J (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of
PRIME- MD: the PHQ Primary Care Study. J Am Med Assoc 282: 1737-1744. Abstract

Spitzer R, Williams J, Kroenke K, Linzer M, deGruy FI, Hahn S, Brody D, Johnson J (1994).
Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 Study. J Am Med Assoc 14(272): 1749-1756. Abstract

USPSTF (2002). Screening for depression: recommendations and rationale. Ann Intern Med.
136(10): 760-4. Abstract

Williams J, Noel P, Cordes J, Ramirez G, Pignone M (2002). Is this patient clinically
depressed? J Am Med Assoc 287:1160-1170 Abstract


AHCPR (1993). Depression Guideline Panel. Depression in Primary Care. Vol 2: Treatment of
major depression. Rockville, MD, DHHS, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

Andrews G (2001) Should depression be managed as a chronic disease. BMJ 322:419-421

APA (2000). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder
(revision). Am J Psychiatry 157(4 supplement): 1-45. Abstract

Chilvers C, Dewey M, Fielding K, Gretton V, Miller P, Palmer B, Weller D, Churchill R,
Williams I, Bedi N, Duggan C, Lee A, Harrison G (2001) Antidepressant drugs and generic counselling for treatment of major depression in primary care: randomised trial with patient preference arms. BMJ 322(7289): 772-5. Abstract

Geddes JR, Carney SM, Davies C, Furukawa TA, Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Goodwin GM (2003).
Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders: a systematic review. Lancet 361: 653-651. Abstract

Keller MB, Kocsis JH, Thase ME, Gelenberg AJ, Rush AJ, et al (1998) Maintenance phase
efficacy of sertraline for chronic depression: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 280: 1665-72. Abstract

Kendrick T (1996). Prescribing antidepressants in general practice: Watchful waiting for minor
depression, full dose treatment for major depression. BMJ 31(313): 829-830. Abstract

Kent J (2000). SNaRIs, NaSSAs, and NaRIs: new agents for the treatment of depression.
Lancet 355: 911-918. Abstract

Kocsis JH, Friedman RA, Markowitz JC, Miller N, Gniwesch L, Bram J (1995) Stability of
remission during tricyclic antidepressant continuation therapy for dysthymia. Psychopharmacol Bull 31:213-216. Abstract

Kocsis JH, Friedman RA, Markowitz JC, Leon AC, Miller NL, Gniwesch L, Parides M. (1996)
Maintenance therapy for chronic depression. A controlled clinical trial of desipramine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 769-74. Abstract

Kroenke K, West S, Swindle R, Gilsenan A, Eckert G, Dolor R, Stang P, Zhou X-H (2001).
Similar effectiveness of paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline in primary care: A randomized trial. JAMA 286: 2947-2955. Abstract

Krupnick J, Sotsky S, Simmens S, Moyer J, Elkin I, Watkins J, Pilkonis P (1996). The role of
the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy outcome: findings in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psycho l64(3): 532-539. Abstract

Lima MS, Moncrieff J (2000). Drugs vs placebo for the treatment of dysthymia.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): 2 Abstract

Lin E, Von Korff M, Katon W, Bush T, Simon G, Walker E, Robinson P. (1995) The role of the
primary care physician in patientsí adherence to antidepressant therapy. Med Care 33(1):67-74 Abstract

Linde K, Mulrow CD (2003). St John's wort for depression (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane
Library, Issue 1. Oxford, England. Update Software, Inc (www.update-software.com).

Malt U, Robak O, Madsbu H, Bakke O, Loeb M (1999). The Norwegian Naturalistic Treatment
Study of Depression in General Practice (NORDEP)-I: Randomized double blind study. BMJ 318: 1180-1184 Abstract

Miranda J, Chung JY, Green BL, Krupnick J, Siddique J, Revicki DA, Belin T. (2003)
Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:57-65 Abstract

Mulrow CD, Williams JJ, Chiquette E, Aguilar C, Noel PH, Lee S, Cornell J, Stamm K (2000).
Efficacy of newer medication for treating depression in primary care. Am J Med 108: 54-64. Abstract

Mynors-Wallis L (1996). Problem-solving treatment: evidence for effectiveness and feasibility in
primary care. Int J Psychiatry Med 26(3): 249-62. Abstract

Mynors-Wallis LM, Gath DH, Day A, Baker F.(1993) Randomized controlled trial of problem
solving treatment, antidepressant medication, and combined treatment for major depression in primary care. BMJ 320:26-30 Abstract

Nelson JC (2003). Managing treatment-resistant major depression. J Clin Psychiatry 64
(suppl 1):5-12

Oxman TE, Sengupta A (2002). Treatment of Minor Depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
10: 256-264. Abstract

Paykel E (1994). Dysthymia in clinical practice :psychological therapies. Acta Psychiatrica
Scandinavica 89 (Suppl 383): 35-41. Abstract

Reynolds CF 3rd, Frank E, Perel JM, Imber SD, Cornes C, Miller MD, Mazumdar S,
Houck PR, Dew MA, Stack JA, Pollock BG, Kupfer DJ (1999) Nortriptyline and interpersonal psychotherapy as maintenance therapies for recurrent major depression: a randomized controlled trial in patients older than 59 years JAMA 281(1): p. 39-45. Abstract

Schulberg HC, Raue PJ, Rollman BL (2002). The effectiveness of psychotherapy in treating
depressive disorders in primary care practice: clinical and cost perspectives. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 244: 203-212. Abstract

Schulberg HC, Katon W, Simon GE, Rush AJ (1998). Treating major depression in primary
care practice: an update of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Practice Guidelines. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55:1121-7. Abstract

Simon G, Von Korff M, Wagner E, Barlow W (1993) Patterns of antidepressant use in
community practice. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 15:399-408 Abstract

Williams J, Rost K, Dietrich A, Ciotti M, Zyzansky S, Cornell j. (1999) Arch Fam Med 8:58-67


Population and Clinical Issues

Blazer D, Hughes DC, George LK (1987). The epidemiology of depression in an elderly
community Blazer D, Hughes DC, George LK (1987). The epidemiology of depression in an elderly community population. Gerontologist 27:281-287

Broadhead W, Blazer D, George L, Tse C (1990). Depression, disability days, and days lost
from work in a prospective epidemiologic survey. J Am Med Assoc 264(19): 2524-2528. Abstract

Hays R, Wells K, Sherbourne C, Rogers W, Spritzer K (1995). Functioning and well-being
outcomes of patients with depression compared with chronic general medical illnesses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52: 11-19. Abstract

Kessler RC, Berglund P, et al. (2003) The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Disorder:
Results From the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289: 3095-3105. Abstract

Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, Wittchen HU,
Kendler KS (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:8-19 E. Abstract

Lin EH, Katon W, Von Korff M, Tan L, Williams JW Jr, Kroenke K, Hunkeler E, Harpole L,
Hegel M, Arean P, Hoffing M, Della Penna R, Langston C, Unutzer J. (2003) IMPACT Investigators: Effect of improving depression care on pain and functional outcomes among older adults with arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:2428-9 Abstract

Murray CJL, Lopez AD (1996). The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive
Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Boston, The Harvard School of Public Health on Behalf of the World Health Organization and the World Bank.

Sartorius N, Ustun TB, Lecrubier Y, Wittchen HU (1996). Depression comorbid with anxiety:
results from the WHO study on psychological disorders in primary health care. Br J Psychiatry Suppl (30): 38-43. Abstract

Economic Issues

Conti DJ, Burton WN (1994). The economic impact of depression in a workplace.
J Occup Med. 36(9):983-8. Abstract

Druss BG, Rosenheck RA, Sledge WH (2000). Health and disability costs of depressive
illness in a major U.S. corporation. Am J Psychiatry. 157(8):1274-8. Abstract

Frank RG, McGuire TG, Normand SL, Goldman HH (1999). The value of mental health care at
the system level: the case of treating depression. Health Aff 18(5):71-88 Abstract

Greenberg PE, Stiglin LE, Finkelstein SN, Berndt ER (1993). The economic burden of
depression in 1990. J Clin Psychiatry. 54(11):405-18. Abstract

Kessler RC, Frank RG (1997). The impact of psychiatric disorders on work loss days.
Psychol Med 27:861-873 Abstract

Lepine JP, Gastpar M, Mendlewicz J, Tylee A (1997). Depression in the community: the first
pan-European study DEPRES (Depression Research in European Society). Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 12(1):19-29. Abstract

Lerner D, Adler DA, Chang H, Lapitsky L, Hood MY, Perissinotto C, Reed J, McLaughlin TJ,
Berndt ER, Rogers WH. Unemployment, job retention, and productivity loss among employees with depression. Psychiatr Serv. 2004 Dec;55(12):1371-8

Rice DP, Miller LS (1995). The economic burden of affective disorders. Br J Psychiatry Suppl.
(27):34-42. Abstract

Simon GE, VonKorff M, Barlow W (1995). Health care costs of primary care patients with
recognized depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 52(10):850-6. Abstract

Simon G, Ormel J, VonKorff M, Barlow W (1995). Health care costs associated with
depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care. Am J Psychiatry 152(3): 352-7. Abstract

Simon GE, Barber C, Birnbaum HG, Frank RG, Greenberg PE, Rose RM, Wang PS,
Kessler RC (2001). Depression and work productivity: the comparative costs of treatment versus nontreatment. J Occup Environ Med. 43(1):2-9. Abstract

Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E, Hahn S, Morganstein D. (2003) Cost of Lost Productive Work
Time Among US Workers With Depression. JAMA 289: 3135-3144. Abstract

Wang PS, Beck AL, Berglund P, McKenas DK, Pronk NP, Simon GE, Kessler RC.
Effects of major depression on moment-in-time work performance. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;161(10):1885-91 Abstract


Barrett JE, Barrett JA, Oxman TE, Gerber PD (1998). The prevalence of psychiatric disorder in
a primary care practice. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45:1100-1106. Abstract

Coyne J, Fechner-Bates S, Schwenk T (1994). Prevalence, nature, and comorbidity of
depressive disorders in primary care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 16:267-276. Abstract

Goldberg D, Huxley P (1980). Mental Illness in the Community: The Pathway to Psychiatric
Care London, Tavistock, 3

Goldberg DP (1984). The recognition of psychiatric illness by non psychiatrists.
Aust NZ J Psych 18:128-134 Abstract

Hoeper E, Nycz G, Cleary P, Regier D, Goldberg I (1979). Estimated prevalence of RDC
mental disorder in primary medical care. Int J Ment Health 8:6-15.

Lyness, JM, Caine ED, King DA, C. Cox C, Yoediono Z (1999). Psychiatric disorders in older
primary care patients." J Gen Intern Med 14: 249-54. Abstract

Regier D, Narrow W, Rae D, Manderscheid, R, Locke B, Goodwin F (1993). The defacto US
mental and addictive disorders service system. Epidemiologic catchment area prospective 1-year prevalence rates of disorders and services. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50: 85-94. Abstract

Schulberg HC, Saul M, McClelland M, Ganguli M, Christy W, Frank R (1985). Assessing
depression in primary medical and psychiatric practices. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:1164-1170 Abstract

Von Korff M, Shapiro S, Burke JD, Teitlebaum M, Skinner EA, German P, Turner RW, Klein L,
Burns B (1987). Anxiety and depression in a primary care clinic: Comparison of DIS, GHQ, and practitioner assessments Arch Gen Psychiatry 44:152-6. Abstract

Widmer RB, Cadoret, RJ (1979). Depression in family practice: Changes in pattern of patient
visits and complaints during subsequent developing depressions. J Fam Practice 9:1017-1021. Abstract


The Need for Care Systems

Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR, Wu AW, Wilson MH, Abboud PA, Rubin HR (1999). Why
don't physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement. J Am Med Assoc 282(15): 1458-65. Abstract

Coulehan JL, Schulberg HC, Block MR, Madonia MJ, Rodriguez E (1997). Treating depressed
primary care patients improves their physical, mental, and social functioning. Arch Intern Med 157(10): 1113-20. Abstract

Davis D (1998). Does CME work? An analysis of the effect of educational activities on
physician performance on health care outcomes. Int J Psychiatry Med 27(1): 21-39. Abstract

Institute of Medicine (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st
Century. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.

Lin EH, Katon WJ, VonKorff M, Russo JE, Simon GE, Bush TM, Rutter CM, Walker EA,
Ludman E (1998). Relapse of depression in primary care: rate and clinical predictors. Arch Fam Med 7:443-449 Abstract

Lin E, Von Korff M, Katon W, Bush T, Simon G, Walker E, Robinson P. (1995) The role of the
primary care physician in patientsí adherence to antidepressant therapy. Med Care 33(1):67-74 Abstract

Rubenstein LV, Jackson-Triche M, Unutzer J, Miranda J, Minnium K, Pearson ML, Wells KB
(1999). Evidence-based care for depression in managed primary care practices. Health Aff 18(5): 89-105. Abstract

Thompson C, Kinmonth A, Stevens L, Peveler R, Stevens A, Ostler K, Pickering R, Baker N,
Henson A, Preece J, Cooper D, Campbell M (2000). Effects of a clinical-practice guideline and practice-based education on detection and outcome of depression in primary care: Hampshire Depression Project randomised controlled trial. Lancet 355(9199): 185-191. Abstract

Valenstein M, Klinkman M, Becker S, Blow FC, Barry KL, Sattar A, Hill E (1999). Concurrent
treatment of patients with depression in the community: provider practices, attitudes, and barriers to collaboration. J Fam Pract 48(3): 180-7. Abstract

Von Korff M, Goldberg D (2001). Improving outcomes in depression: the whole process of care
needs to be enhanced. BMJ 323: 948-949. Abstract

Wells KB, Schoenbaum M, Unutzer J, Lagomasino IT, Rubenstein LV (1999). Quality of care
for primary care patients with depression in managed care. Arch Fam Med 8(6): 529-36. Abstract

Care Systems Models and Components

Badamgarav E, Weingarten SR, Henning JM, Knight K, Hasselblad V, Gano A, Ofman JJ.
(2003) Effectiveness of disease management programs in depression: A systematic review. Am J Psychiatry 160:2080-2090 Abstract

Gilbody S, Whitty P, Grimshaw J, Thomas R. (2003) Educational and Organizational
Interventions to Improve the Management of Depression in Primary Care: A Systematic Review. JAMA 289: 3145-3151. Abstract

Katon W, Von Korff M, Lin E, Simon G (2001). Rethinking practitioner roles in chronic illness:
the specialist, primary care physician, and the practice nurse. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 23(3): 138-44. Abstract

Lin E, VonKorff M, Katon W, Bush T, Simon G, Walker E, Robinson P (1995). The role of the
primary care physician in patients' adherence to antidepressant therapy. Medical Care 33(1): 67-74. Abstract

Oxman TE, Dietrich AJ, Williams JW Jr, Kroenke K (2002). A three component model for re-
engineering systems for primary care treatment of depression. Psychosomatics 43:441-450 Abstract

Peveler R, George C, Kinmonth AL, Campbell M, Thompson C (1999). Effect of antidepressant
drug counselling and information leaflets on adherence to drug treatment in primary care: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 319(7210): 612-5. Abstract

Schulberg HC, Bryce C, Chisk K, Mulsant BH, Rollman B, Bruce ML, Coyne JC, Reynolds
CF, 3rd (2001). Managing late-life depression in primary care practice: a case study of the Health Specialist's role. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 16(6): 577-584. Abstract

Solberg LI, Korsen N, Oxman T, Fischer LR, Bartels S (1999) The need for a system in the
care of depression J Family Practice 48:973-979. Abstract

VonKorff M, Gruman J, Schaefer J, Curry SJ, Wagner EH (1997). Collaborative management of
chronic illness. Annals Intern Med 127:1097-102. Abstract

Wagner E, Austin B, Vonkorff M (1996). Organizing care for patients with chronic illness.
Milbank Q 74: 511-544. Abstract

Randomized Controlled Trials of Care Systems

Dietrich AJ, Oxman TE, Williams Jr JW, Schulberg HC, Bruce ML, Lee PW, Barry S,
Raue PJ, Lefever PJ, Heo M, Rost K, Kroenke K, Gerrity M, Nutting PA. Re-Engineering Systems for the Primary Care Treatment of Depression: a cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2004 329(7466):602 PDF

Hedrick SC, Chaney EF, FelkerB, Chuan-Fen L, Hasenberg N, Heagerty P, Buchanan J,
Gagala R, Greenberg D, Paden G, Fihn SD, Katon W (2003). Effectiveness of collaborative care depression treatment in Veteransí Affairs primary care. J Gen Intern Med 18:9-16 Abstract

Hunkeler EM, Meresman JF, Hargreaves WA, Fireman B, Berman WH, Kirsch AJ, Groebe J,
Hurt SW, Braden P, Getzell M, Feigenbaum PA, Peng T, Salzer M (2000). Efficacy of nurse telehealth care and peer support in augmenting treatment of depression in primary care. Arch Fam Med 9(8): 700-708. Abstract

Katon W, Robinson P, VonKorff M, Lin E, Bush T, Ludman E, Simon G, Walker E (1996). A
Multifaceted intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53(10): 924-932. Abstract

Katon W, Von Korff M, Lin E, Walker E, Simon GE, Bush T, Robinson P, Russo J (1995).
Collaborative management to achieve treatment guidelines. Impact on depression in primary care. J Am Med Assoc 273(13): 1026-31. Abstract

Katon W, VonKorff M, Lin E, Simon G, Walker E, Unutzer J, Bush T, Russo J, Ludman E
(1999). Stepped collaborative care for primary care patients with persistent symptoms of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 1109-1115. Abstract

Katon W, Rutter C, Ludman E, VonKorff M, Lin E., Simon G, Bush T, Walker E, Unutzer J
(2001). A randomized trial of relapse prevention of depression in primary care. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58: 241-247. Abstract

Katzelnick D, Simon G, Pearson S, Manning W, Helstad C, Henk H, Cole S, Lin E, Taylor L,
Kobak K (2000). Randomized trial of a depression management program in high utilizers of medical care. Arch Fam Med 9: 345-351. Abstract

Rost K, Nutting P, Smith J, Werner J, Duan N (2001). Improving depression outcomes in
community primary care practice: a randomized trial of the QuEST Intervention. J Gen Intern Med 16: 143-149. Abstract

Rost K, Nutting P, Smith JL, Elliott CE, Dickinson M (2002). Managing depression as a
chronic disease: A randomised trial of ongoing treatment in primary care. BMJ 325:934-939 Abstract

Schulberg HC, Block M, Madonia, M, Scott CP, Rodriguez E, Imber SD, Perel J, et al. (1996)
Treating major depression in primary care practice. Eight-month clinical outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 913-919. Abstract

Simon GE, VonKorff M, Rutter C, Wagner E (2000). Randomised trial of monitoring, feedback,
management of care by telephone to improve treatment of depression in primary care [see comments]. BMJ 320(7234): 550-4. Abstract

Unutzer J, Katon W, Callahan CM, Williams JW Jr., Hunkeler E, Harpole L, Hoffing M, Della
Penna RD, Noel PH, Lin EH, Arean PA, Hegel MT, Tang L, Belin TR, Oishi S, Langston C, Treatment IIIM-PAtC (2002). Collaborative care management of late-life depression in the primary care setting: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc. 288(22): 2836-45. Abstract

Wells KB, Sherbourne C, Schoenbaum M, Duan N, Meredith L, Unutzer J, Miranda J,
Carney MF, Rubenstein LV (2000). Impact of disseminating quality improvement programs for depression in managed primary care: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 283(2): 212-20. Abstract


Harvey I, Nelson S, Lyons R, Unwin C, Monaghan S, Peters T (1998). A randomized controlled
trial and economic evaluation of counselling in primary care. Br J Gen Pract 48(428): 1043-1048. Abstract

Lave J, Frank R, Schulberg H, Kamlet M (1998). Cost-effectiveness of treatments for major
depression in primary care practice. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55(7): 645-651. Abstract

McFarland B (1994). Cost-effectiveness considerations for managed care systems: treating
depression in primary care. The Am J Med 97(Suppl 6A): 47S-57S. Abstract

Pincus H, Zarin D,JC W (1996). Peering into the 'black box'. Measuring outcomes of managed
care. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53: 870-877. Abstract

Pyne JM, Rost KM, Zhang M, Williams DK, Smith J, Fortney J. (2003) Cost-effectiveness
of a primary care depression intervention. J Gen Intern Med 18:432-41 Abstract

Schoenbaum M, Unutzer J, Sherbourne C, Duan N, Rubenstein L, Miranda J, Meredith LS,
Carney ME, Wells KB (2001). Cost-effectiveness of Practice-Initiated Quality Improvement for Depression. J Am Med Assoc 286(11): 1325-1330. Abstract

Scott A, Freeman C (1992). Edinburgh primary care depression study:treatment outcome,
patient satisfaction, and cost after 16 weeks. BMJ 304(6831): 883-887 Abstract

Simon G, Katon W, VonKorff M, Unutzer J, Lin E, Walker E, Bush T, Rutter C,
Ludman E (2001). Cost effectiveness of a collaborative care program for primary care patients with persistent depression. Am J Psychiatry 158:1638-1644. Abstract

Simon G, Manning W, Katzelnick D, Perarson S, Henk H, Helstad C (2001). Cost
effectiveness of systematic depression treatment for high utilizers of general medical care. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:181-187. Abstract

Sturm R, Wells K (1995). How can care for depression become more cost-effective?
J Am Med Assoc 273(1): 51-58. Abstract

VonKorff, M., Katon W, Bush T, Lin E, Simon G, Saunders K, Ludman E, Walker E, Unutzer J
(1998). Treatment costs, cost offset, and cost-effectiveness of collaborative management of depression. Psychosom Med 60: 143-149. Abstract

Ware J, Bayliss M, Rogers W, Kosinski M, Tarlov A (1996). Differences in 4-year health
outcomes for elderly and poor, chronically ill patients treated in HMO and fee-for-service systems. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. J Am Med Assoc 276(13): 1039-1047. Abstract

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